Crawford Peter I., University
Crawford Peter I., University of Aarhus, Pata Negra. A Social and Cultural, and Visual Biography of the Iberian Pig.
Pata negra, or ‘black hoof’ in Spanish, is the term given for the Iberian pig, and the exquisite ham that is produced from it. This presentation will outline an anthropological study and audio-‐visual ethnography of pata negra, exploring the social and cultural contexts of pig farming and the production of ham, and the complex systems of classification of pigs (red, black and mixed), as well as the rituals at village level that feature pigs. The project is being based on field-‐ and film work carried out over extended periods in Extremadura and Badajos, looking also into the ways in which the Iberian pig is used in negotiations of cultural identity at both national and international levels. The project may also be regarded as an example of what we may call a visual anthropology of food culture, and how food may be one of the most important elements we have of cultural heritage in Europe. Excerpts from preliminary footage will be shown as part of the presentation.
In 2010 during a visit to Morocco, I met Ilias, a young adult from Amsterdam, searching for his roots and routes in Musee Tiskiwin. This private ethnographic collection in Marrakech offered him answers about the Moroccan part of his multicultural identity, that museums in the Netherlands could not provide him with. Together we set out to try and change that. After all, many more young adults turned out to be grappling with configuring their multicultural identities and we felt that ethnographic museums could play a bigger role in that. It has led to our involvement in a huge EU research consortium: RICHES (Renewal, Innovation and Change: Heritage and European Society http://www.riches project.eu/). Within RICHES we focus on cultural diversity and digital social innovation, meaning that we look at Web 3.0 characteristics in trying to build a relationship between Cultural Heritage institutions and young adults.
Instead of being the film maker, portraying ‘others’, or even handing the camera over, it turned out we needed to collaborate in a different way and involved Medialab Waag Society (https://www.waag.org/en) to help out with far more open ended co creative techniques, based on design thinking methods and found the Dutch National Museum of Worldcultures (http://volkenkunde.nl/en) happy to join in the experiment. At this moment we are halfway the process of creating some intervention (to be finished by September 2015!) see more here: http://www.leidenanthropologyblog.nl/articles/Designing dialogues for an ethnographic museum The entire process is filmed (11 min available on request).
Apart from this ‘hands on’ process we carried out desk research and fieldwork, illuminating how young adults perceive ‘heritage’ and found that most value is placed upon so called ‘intangible’ heritage outside authorised institutions.
Another topic we thoroughly researched was online heritage practices and here we found that multiple identifications are beautifully visualised in the virtual realm and that in cases of stigmatization especially ethnic based discussion boards and other digital platforms play a vital role in preserving, renewing and/or transmitting cultural heritage. I propose to present some of our findings from the three strands of research.
Fischer-Møller Knud, NAFA, Mumming and Controlled Transgression: Twelfth Night as intangible cultural heritage and performance.
„For more than 5 generations local inhabitants has continued to perform the informal-house-vist on the island Ærø in Denmark. The folk custom takes place at midwinter, where mumming and talking are the center of rotation. Visual anthropology serves as a point of departure in this life-long study of social semantics and the form in which they are espressed.
Oral communicaton between masked and non-masked participants in Twelfth Night is an example of how presentation of social interaction and cultural competence in a fictive universe is suitable for a performative approach. Understood as process and a study of form and way rather than goals and means, Twelfth Night represents the opposite of the notion of a social safte valve and is instead revealed as a careful management of the borderline between controlled and uncontrolled transgression.
Mankova Petia, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Under the Lens Pressure: the Making and Appropriating of Cultural Distinctiveness in the Northwestern Corner of Russia.
Krasnoshchele is a small, road-less village in the middle of Kola Peninsula, the very Northwestern corner of Russia. Surrounded by bare tundra, numerous lakes and inaccessible marshland its scenery has attracted scholars, journalists and documentary filmmakers. Part of its population are Sami, the only people recognised as indigenous in Europe. The majority however are Komi, descendants of the Komi people who migrated 120 years ago from the area east of the White Sea. During the Soviet times Russians, Ukrainians, people from different parts of the Soviet Union also found their way to the village. One of the recent films presents the village as an indigenous Sami village; another one – as Komi and part of the Komi diaspora. Is it difficult for the filmmakers to capture the cultural diversity or are they intentionally ignoring it? Leaning on my firsthand knowledge and longterm engagement with the small community I would like to address the “filmic” pressure on the “cultural” distinctiveness of the village and its roots and effects.
In the ongoing project: ‚Culture and Nature in Transylvania: Past and Future’ (EEA Grant) we are exploring what local stakeholders consider natural and cultural values in a multiethnic region in central part of Romania, southern part of Transylvania, with a mild climate making it suitable for wine production. Romanians, Hungarians, Slovaks and Roma populate the region, and formerly families belonging to the Hungarian aristocracy as well. What are the elements highlighting attempts of heritagization? Do those relate to memories and buildings of the former aristocracy, and to the wine production? How is local culture (re)invented and shaped in the light of the changing roles of countryside, tourism and cultural heritage? And how do different local groups take part in this process of heritagization?
The camera is used as a tool of inquiry and analysis in the anthropological tradition of cultural analysis and the creation of knowledge. We would like to present our experiences of using the camera as an exploration tool in exploring cultural and natural heritage in Transylvania, and to illustrate this by screening some fragments from footage of the fieldwork.
Project partners: The Hungarian University Federation, The University Museum of Bergen and the Nordic Anthropological Film Association (NAFA).
(Wednesday) 09:30 - 11:45
Jagiellońska 26, 03-719 Warszawa